rauta

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rauta

rauta Kungakhale hardware kapena mapulogalamu ndipo amagwiritsidwa ntchito pogawira mapuloteni a mapulogalamu pakati pa mautumiki osiyanasiyana pa intaneti. Mawotchi odziwika bwino kwambiri ndiwo ma intaneti, omwe amagwirizanitsa maukonde a intaneti ndi intaneti. Koma osati intaneti yokha komanso mapulogalamu ena ndi ofala, mwachitsanzo kugwiritsa ntchito Virtual Private Network (VPN) kapena kugwirizana kwa magawo ena a intaneti monga LAN ndi WAN.
Kupitako kumagwira ntchito molingana ndi OSI reference model pa malo osanjikizira (kusinthana). Kumatchedwanso 3 wosanjikiza, kusinthana kumayendetsa kuyankhulana pakati pa mapeto ndi intaneti.
Chigawo choyendetsera ntchito chimagwiritsidwa ntchito pokonza mapeto. Pochita zimenezi, amagwiritsa ntchito protocol IP, makamaka aderesi adiresi gawo la adiresi ya IP. A router ali ndi mawonekedwe amodzi kapena osakaniza omwe amagwiritsira ntchito mauthenga.

Mabotolo ambiri angathenso kumasulira maadiresi apamtunda ndi amtundu wa IP (NAT / PAT, kumasulira kwa adiresi, makasitomala a phukusi) ndipo akhoza kukhala ngati chowotcha moto. Poyendetsa njira, njira zokhudzana ndi ndondomeko zingagwiritsidwe ntchito nthawi zina, zomwe, kupatula pa adiresi yoyenda, mbali zina za phukusi la deta, monga chiyambi (IP address), zofunika zapadera, kapena magawo ena. Mwachitsanzo, n'zotheka kuyendetsa pa Web packets (HTTP) pa njira yosiyana kuposa, mwachitsanzo, ma pack paket (SMTP).

Kodi kuyendetsa ntchito?

The router imapeza adiresi yolondola yofikira pa phukusi la deta, Mwachitsanzo kudzera pa adiresi ya pa intaneti mkati mwa adiresi ya IP, nthawi zonse amayesa kupeza njira yayitali kwambiri komanso yofulumira kupita ku adiresi yoyenera. Kuti mudziwe kumene maadiresi omwe ali pamtunda, foni yamagetsi imagwiritsa ntchito tebulo. Gome lotha kuyendetsa likhoza kumveka ngati bukhu la adiresi la komwe likupita kukalozera pa intaneti. Zimapangitsa njira ndi njira yomwe ingagwiritsidwe ntchito pofikira kopita. Zolembedwera mu tebulo loyendetsera ntchito zimapangidwa mwachindunji ndi router, nthawizina zimayenera kulowetsedwa. Zogwirizanitsa molumikiza zimangowonekera mosavuta patebulo loyendetsa polojekiti pamene kukonza kuli kolondola. Kumbali inayi, njira zoyendetsa bwino ziyenera kulowetsedwa mwadongosolo ndi wotsogolera. Njira zamphamvu ndi njira zomwe mumaphunzira kudzera potsatira njira. Apa, protocol ulendo zikuphatikizapo kukula zokhudza gulu maukonde ndi maukonde yokha. Ngati palibe kulowa enieni adiresi kopita kuti amagwiritsa kulowa ndi kusakhulupirika.

Sitiyenera kusokonezeka ndi machitidwe omwe akutsatiridwa (monga IP kapena IPX) ndi zizindikiro zowonongeka. Kutsatsa ndondomeko zimayendetsa kayendetsedwe kake ndipo ndi gawo la router. ndondomeko Anagonjetsa ndi ndondomeko ya mapaketi deta amene amadutsa, kumene: Osati ndondomeko onse akhoza kusamutsidwa, koma likhoza kunyamula mapaketi kafukufuku ndondomeko ngati IPv4, IPv6 kapena IPX / SPX. Malamulo ena amatha kuyendetsedwa kudzera mu tunnel ndi ntchito yapadera monga Datalink kusintha, pogwiritsa ntchito kusintha ndi milatho. Komabe, kuthekera sikudziwonekera kwa router iliyonse, gawo lokha limagwira ntchito monga kusanjikiza kwa 3 kusintha, kutanthauza kuti akhoza kupanga bridge ntchito. Pankhani yamagulu akuluakulu a m'derali, amayesetsanso kuyesetsa kuti voliyumu ikhale yochepa payekha. Kwa DHCP ndi mautumiki ena omwe amafalitsidwa kuti agwire ntchito ndi router, router iyenera kukhala ndi wothandizira wothandizira.

Kodi ndi magalimoto otani omwe alipo?

Malingana ndi mphamvu zake zothandizira, munthu akhoza kusiyanitsa pakati pa mitundu yosiyanasiyana:

Mawotchi amodzi okhawo ali othandizira pazinthu zamtundu monga IPv4. Ma-router multi-protocol (kapena multiprotocol routers) angagwirizane ndi mabanja angapo a protocol, mwachitsanzo IP, DECnet, IPX / SPX ndi ena.

Komabe, masiku ano maukonde ndondomeko zina kuposa protocol IP Mwachitsanzo, kusewera kokha ntchito aang'ono chifukwa akhoza opatsirana pa protocol IP ndi encapsulated monga IPX kapena NetBIOS pa TCP / IP.

Palinso magulu othandizira kusiyanitsa mitundu yosiyanasiyana:

Makina oyendetsa zipangizo zamakina, omwe amadziwikanso ngati mabotolo, amapezeka pa intaneti kapena pa makampani akuluakulu. Iwo ali ndipamwamba kwambiri kudutsa deta ndipo amapangidwa kwa nthawi yaitali, operewera-otetezeka opaleshoni. Palibe purosesa imodzi yapakati, koma mphamvu yamagetsi imagawidwa mwachindunji kudzera mu intaneti. Mapepala ambiri a deta angatengeke mofanana chifukwa machweti ndi ma interfaces amafalitsa deta mosasamala. Kwa ojambula ena, ogwira ntchito zovuta amatchulidwanso kuti amasintha ndi njira zogwirira ntchito. Zida zimenezi ndizopadera pazitsulo zamakalata, koma gwiritsani ntchito ma Adilesi m'malo mwa IP.

Ngakhale PC zabwinobwino zingagwiritsidwe ntchito ngati maulendo. Pachifukwa ichi, kuyendetsa ntchito kumagwiritsidwa ntchito pamtundu wa machitidwe ndi CPU. Mawotchi oterewa amafunikira mphamvu zamagetsi. Machitidwe opanga POSIX amatha kupereka njira, koma machitidwe ena angagwiritsidwe ntchito ndi mapulogalamu ena a router opaleshoni. Njira zambiri zogwiritsira ntchito zakhala zikugwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri, monga Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X Server, kapena Linux.

Zipangizo zosiyana zimagwiritsidwa ntchito molingana ndi kayendedwe kowonjezera. M'makampani akuluakulu, hardware kapena maulendo opanga maofesi amagwiritsidwa ntchito nthawi zambiri zomwe zimakonzedweratu kuti zikhale zotsika komanso zotsika mtengo komanso zingagwiritsidwe ntchito mu kabati yoyang'anira.
Mapulogalamu abwino a pulojekiti amagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri m'malo osadziwika, kaya ngati woyendetsa galimoto kapena woyendetsa galimoto yosadzipereka. Ngati malo ogwira ntchito kapena seva amagwiritsidwa ntchito pokhapokha kuti azitha kuyendetsa njira, izi zimatchedwa router wodzipatulira, pomwe kusiyana kwake kosadzipatulira kumagwiranso ntchito zina pambali pa njira.

Amagwiritsira ntchito makina oyendetsera zipangizo zamagetsi kumalo okwezeka, amakhala ndi mabasi apamwamba kwambiri kapena mipiringidzo ndipo amapangidwa kuti apitirize ntchito ndi kulephera chitetezo. Iwo ali opambana kwambiri pochita mapulogalamu osiyanasiyana, koma ndi okwera mtengo kwambiri kugula. PC zosavuta zilibe zida zofunikira, koma ma seva abwino kapena malo ogwirira ntchito akhoza kukhala ndi zigawo zowonjezereka, motero kuonetsetsa kuti kusatetezeka kumadera ena sikulephera.

Ndikofunika kuzindikira kuti zipangizo zina, zomwe zimasankhidwa ngati ma hartersre routers, zimapangidwa ndi PC zigawo zikuluzikulu komanso zochepa chabe, monga zochitika kapena padera za PCI, zasinthidwa. Komabe, machitidwewa amapitiriza kupanga mapulogalamu.

Ngati ntchito siidali yovuta, mungagwiritse ntchito machitidwe opatulira ndi osadzipereka. Njira zothandizira, zirizonse, zogwira ntchito zonse ziwiri.
Chifukwa chake n'chakuti ngati tingachipeze powerenga PCI basi 32-bit m'lifupi basi ndi wotchi liwiro 33 MHz ntchito imene m akhoza kusamutsidwa mfundo theoretically 1 Gbit /. Popeza kutengerapo theka duplex mode amapezeka (HDX) mapaketi maukonde zonse zapita kawiri pa basi PCI, kotero kuti deta anasamutsidwa mtsinje uliwonse malangizo basi yafupika ndi theka. Komabe, Efaneti masiku ano mu mode zonse duplex (FDX) ndi opareshoni, omwe sangathe kukwaniritsa dongosolo ndi 32-bit basi PCI ndi 33 MHz njira. Ngati kachitidwe ntchito ndi 64-bit basi PCI ndi 66 MHz, angakwanitse kuposa pafupifupi 4 Gbit / s. Machitidwe abwino a seva amatha kuthamanga mofulumira (mwachitsanzo PCI-X 266) ndi mabasi ambiri PCI odziimira. Ndondomeko zoterezi zingathe kukwaniritsa mitengo yabwino kwambiri, koma imakhalanso ndi mphamvu zogwiritsira ntchito, zomwe zimawonetseratu kuti zimagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri. Ngati muli ndi ndalama zokwanira, zokhudzana ndi mphamvu yogwiritsira ntchito magetsi ndi ma CPU oyenera ndi chipsets ndithu.

Kuti mukwaniritse bwino ntchito yanu panthawi yomwe mukuyendetsa, simukusowa chovala chodzipatulira, koma mungagwiritsenso ntchito magulu otsogolera. Masango angapangidwe ndi maulendo angapo opanga mapulogalamu (mwachitsanzo pazinthu zambiri zogwirira ntchito). Mawotchi opangidwa ndi mapulogalamuwa amagwirizanirana wina ndi mzake pogwiritsa ntchito kusintha ndi ma doko okwanira komanso kudutsa ma CDG angapo. Komabe, ziyenera kudziŵika kuti chiwerengero chazomwe chiwerengero chazomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pazomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pokhapokha zimagwirizana ndi kuchuluka kwa chiwombankhanga chosinthira. Kuwonjezera apo, masango angapangidwe mozunguza, kuwapanga iwo apamwamba kwambiri, operewera-otetezeka ndi odula.

Mabotolo a DSL ali ndi makasitomala a PPPoE omwe angatumikire pa intaneti ndi DSL. Mabotolo a DSL ali ndi Network Address Translation (NAT) pa ma intaneti a IPv4 kotero kuti ma public public IPv4 angathe kumasulira pazinsinsi za IPv4. Zosintha za DSL zingakhalenso ndi mawonekedwe, WLAN ndi dongosolo la telecommunication ndi VoIP.

Mabomba oyendetsa magalimoto amagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi ogwira ntchito pa intaneti kuti agwirizanitse mautumiki awo ku machitidwe ena odziimira. Nthaŵi zambiri, ntchito ya External Border Gateway Protocol (EBGP) imagwiritsidwa ntchito.

Maulendo a WLAN ndi osinthika, osayendetsedwa opanda waya ndi router, ndipo ali ndi doko la WAN lothandizira mawebusaiti awiri kapena angapo. Izi zimalola kuyenda pakati pa WLAN ndi WAN kapena pakati pa LAN ndi WAN njira. Kawirikawiri chipangizo chopangidwa ndi WLAN chingagwiritsidwe ntchito pa malo ochepa chabe.

kutsatsaZogulitsa kwambiri. 1
AVM Fritz! Bokosi 7590 mkulu-mapeto WLAN AC + N rauta (VDSL / ADSL, 4x4 Mu-MIMO ndi 1.733 (5 GHz) ndi 800 Mbit / s (2,4 GHz), mpaka 300 Mbit / s VDSL Supervectoring 35b , DECT ofotokoza Media seva) kuwonetsera
  • Mapulogalamu apamwamba othamanga a AC + N kwa MIMO ambirimbiri omwe amagwiritsira ntchito MIMO ndi 1.733 (5 GHz) + 800 MBit / s (2,4 GHz) panthaŵi imodzimodziyo, amawathandiza manda opanda waya
  • Ndondomeko ya foni ya intaneti ndi malo okhala ndi mauthenga a mauthenga ndi fax-ma-mail, ofesi ya DECT yowonjezera ya matelefoni osachepera asanu ndi limodzi, ma foni a analogue ndi a ISDN
  • Mediaserver (UPnP AV) imagawira mafilimu, zithunzi ndi nyimbo pamtanda wa nyumba kwa ovomerezeka oyenera monga mapiritsi, makanema, ma-hi-fi ndi zina
  • 4x Gigabit LAN yolumikiza makompyuta ndi zotsegulira masewera, 2x USB 3.0 / 2.0 mapaipi kwa osindikiza ndi kusungirako mu intaneti
  • Kuchuluka kwa kotunga: Fritz Bokosi 7590, DSL / telefoni chingwe, 4,25m, adaputala chingwe Aphunzitsi / RJ45, 4m, LAN chingwe, 1,5m, Aphunzitsi / RJ45 adaputala, Aphunzitsi / RJ11 adaputala, mphamvu adaputala, unsembe kalozera
Zogulitsa kwambiri. 2
AVM Fritz! Bokosi 7530 mkulu-mapeto WLAN AC + N rauta (DSL / VDSL, 866 Mbit / s (5GHz) ndi 400 Mbit / s (2,4 GHz), mpaka 300 Mbit / s VDSL Supervectoring 35b, DECT m'munsi, Media Server, yoyenera ku Germany) Onetsani
  • Mkulu-mapeto opanda zingwe AC + N rauta ndi 866 Mbit / s (5 GHz) ndi 400 Mbit / s (2,4 GHz) pa nthawi yomweyo, opanda zingwe mauna: zodziwikiratu merging wa ntchito mankhwala Fritz mu misewu anzeru mafoni kuthamanga pa ntchito pachimake
  • Intaneti ikufulumira ku 300 Mbps kupyolera mu VDSL Supervectoring 35b
  • IP PBX ndi mauthenga a mauthenga ndi fax-mail, Integrated DECT base station kwa mafoni asanu ndi limodzi osagwiritsidwa ntchito, kulumikizana kwa foni ya analogue
  • Mediaserver (UPnP AV) imagawira mafilimu, zithunzi ndi nyimbo pamtanda wa nyumba kwa ovomerezeka oyenera monga mapiritsi, makanema, ma-hi-fi ndi zina
  • Kukula kwa kubereka: FRITZ! Bokosi 7530, cable DSL 4,25m, LAN cable 1,5m, magetsi, malangizo opangira
kutsatsaZogulitsa kwambiri. 3
TP-Link TL-WR841N N300 WLAN Opanda zingwe WiFi rauta (300Mbit / s 2,4GHz, 4 10 × / 100Mbit / s LAN madoko kwa kugwirizana kwa chingwe / DSL / CHIKWANGWANI chamawonedwe modemu, kupeza mfundo mode, IPv6) Muzisonyeza
  • 300 Mbps liwiro lachangu; Ndibwino kuti muzisokoneza-zosavuta kugwiritsa ntchito monga kanema wa HD
  • Antenna awiri amachititsa kuti WLAN ikhale yamphamvu komanso yolimba
  • Kusakanikirana kosavuta kwa Wi-Fi ndi makina ophweka pa batani WPS
  • Kuwongolera mlingo wa deta kumapangitsa kuti muzindikire kuchuluka kwa deta zomwe zapatsidwa kwa PC iliyonse
  • N'zogwirizana ndi IPv6, System Zofunika: Microsoft Windows 98SE, NT, 2000, XP, Vista, 7, 8 kapena 10, MacOS, NetWare, UNIX, Linux
kutsatsaZogulitsa kwambiri. 4
AVM Fritz! Bokosi WLAN 7490 AC + N rauta (VDSL / ADSL, 1.300 Mbit / s (5 GHz), 450 Mbit / s (2,4 GHz), DECT ofotokoza Media Server) oyenera Germany anasonyeza
  • Wapawiri-Fi AC + N rauta ndi 1.300 (5 GHz) + 450 Mbit / s (2,4 GHz) ntchito munthawi yomweyo onse mafurikwense opanda zingwe, VDSL ndi ADSL / ADSL2 + modemu (alumikiza B kwa Germany) amathandiza WLAN thumba
  • Ndondomeko ya intaneti ya intaneti ndi makanema otetezedwa ndi mauthenga a mauthenga ndi fax-ma-mail, ophatikizidwa ndi DECT malo osungirako ma telefoni osakanizidwa ndi 6, malumikizidwe a matelefoni a analogue ndi a ISDN
  • Mediaserver (UPnP AV) imagawira mafilimu, zithunzi ndi nyimbo pamtanda wa nyumba kwa ovomerezeka oyenera monga mapiritsi, makanema, ma-hi-fi ndi zina
  • 4 x Gigabit LAN pogwirizanitsa makompyuta ndi zosangalatsa za masewera; 2x USB 3.0 / 2.0 mapaipi a osindikiza ndi osungirako mu intaneti
  • Kuchuluka kwa kotunga: Fritz Bokosi 7490, 4,25 mamita DSL kugwirizana foni chingwe, chingwe DSL 4 mamita kugwirizana, 1,5 mamita LAN chingwe, DSL adaputala, adaputala foni, perekani kunja mphamvu, mwamsanga kuyamba kalozera
kutsatsaZogulitsa kwambiri. 5
AVM FRITZ! DECT Kubwereza 100 (Kuchulukitsa mtundu wa DECT) mawonekedwe a chinenero cha Chijeremani
  • Zowonjezera ma DECT mofulumira ndi mosavuta, abwino kwa onse FRITZ! Box models ndi Integrated DECT maziko
  • Ndili ndi FRITZ! Bokosi ngati malo oyambira DECT Kubwereza kachiwiri kwa telefoni, TV, ma podcasts ndi RSS komanso ma telefoni otetezeka
  • Maulendo ambiri panthawi imodzi pamtunda wautali, amawongoleranso pogwiritsira ntchito obwereza ena kumbali iliyonse
  • Zimagwirizanitsa ndi DECT maziko osungira kuchokera kwa ena opanga (GAP muyeso) ndi ntchito yowonjezeredwa ntchito
  • Kuchuluka kwa kubereka: FRITZ! DECT Kubwereza 100, malangizo a kuikidwa
kutsatsaZogulitsa kwambiri. 7
AVM Fritz! Bokosi 4020 opanda zingwe rauta (kwa kugwirizana kwa chingwe / DSL / CHIKWANGWANI chamawonedwe modemu, WLAN N, 450 Mbit / s (2,4 GHz) 4 X Fast Efaneti, 1 × USB 2.0, Media Server) Red / White, German-chinenero Baibulo kuwonetsera
  • (WAN) kapena UMTS / HSPA / LTE-Stick (USB) kuti agwirizane ndi malo omwe alipo,
  • WLAN N mpaka 450 MBit / s (gulu lokhazikika la 2,4 GHz), WLAN kapena LAN alendo ogwiritsa ntchito pa intaneti kwa alendo omwe sali ndi mwayi wopita kunyumba yachinsinsi
  • Ntchito ya NAS imalola USB ndi yosungirako pa intaneti kuti igwiritsidwe ntchito monga kusungirako kwachinsinsi, kulumikiza komanso kutali, monga kudzera pa MyFRITZ
  • 4x Fast Ethernet yolumikiza makompyuta, ma TV, masewera osewera masewera, 1x USB port 2.0 kwa osindikiza ndi kusungirako makanema; Zosinthasintha za FRITZ! OS ndi MyFRITZ!, FRITZ! NAS, FRITZ! Mapulogalamu ndi fritz.box ntchito yomasulira - mwachidwi yogwiritsa ntchito pamsakatuli
  • Kukula kwa kubereka: AVM FRITZ! Bokosi la 4020 WLAN, magetsi, khadi la utumiki (FRITZ! Note), chingwe chachinsinsi (1,8 m, white)
kutsatsaZogulitsa kwambiri. 8
AVM Fritz! Box 4040 WLAN Router (yolumikizira chingwe / DSL / fiber optic modem, wapawiri WLAN AC + N, 866 Mbit / s (5 GHz) ndi 400 Mbit / s (2,4 x Gigabit LAN, 4 x USB 1, 3.0 x USB 1, Media Server) chiwonetsero
  • WLAN rauta yolumikizira netiweki yomwe ilipo, chingwe / DSL / fiber optic modem (WAN) kapena ndodo ya UMTS / HSPA / LTE (USB); Mtundu wa Chijeremani
  • WLAN AC + N yofika 866 MBit / s (5 GHz) ndi 400 Mbit / s (2,4 GHz), WLAN kapena LAN alendo olowera pa intaneti kwa alendo popanda mwayi wapaintaneti
  • Ntchito ya NAS imalola kuti USB ndi malo osungira pa intaneti zizigwiritsidwa ntchito ngati malo osungira ma netiweki, kufikira kuchokera kutali, mwachitsanzo kudzera pa MyFRITZ!
  • 4x Gigabit Ethernet yolumikiza makompyuta, ma TV, makina amakanema, 1x USB 3.0, 1 x USB 2.0 kwa osindikiza ndi osungidwa mu netiweki, Versatile FRITZ! OS yokhala ndi MyFRITZ !, FRITZ! NAS, FRITZ! Mapulogalamu ndi mawonekedwe a ogwiritsa a fritz.box - chachilengedwe kugwiritsa ntchito kudzera pa msakatuli
  • Mulingo woperekera: AVM FRITZ! Box 4040 WLAN rauta, magetsi, khadi yautumiki (FRITZ! Chidziwitso), chingwe cha ma netiweki (1,8 m, choyera), mayendedwe oyambira
kutsatsaZogulitsa kwambiri. 9
TP-Link TL-WR802N zam'manja N300 opanda zingwe rauta (300Mbit / s 2,4GHz, 1x yaying'ono USB kwa kugwirizana kwa chingwe / DSL / CHIKWANGWANI chamawonedwe modemu, kusindikiza / FTP / Media Server, Access Point mode, IPv6) Muzisonyeza
  • WLAN ikufulumira kufika ku 300Mbit / s, yabwino kuwonetsera kanema ndi kusewera pa intaneti
  • Njira zambiri zogwiritsira ntchito: AP (zosasintha), kasitomala, router, repeater ndi mlatho, makonzedwe apakompyuta, abwino paulendo
  • Kugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu pogwiritsa ntchito chipangizo chamagetsi chakutali kapena kudzera pakompyuta ya kompyuta
  • Kuyikidwa mosavuta mkati mwa mphindi
  • Kuchuluka kwa kotunga: TP-Link TL-WR802N Opanda zingwe nano rauta, mphamvu adaputala, USB chingwe, RJ-45 Efaneti chingwe, mwamsanga unsembe kalozera, CD
Zogulitsa kwambiri. 10
TP-Link akaponya C6 Gigabit rauta Wi-Fi mayiko awili Band Opanda zingwe AC1200, 5 Gigabit madoko, 4 tinyanga 1 Internal mlongoti, Access Point, Mu-MIMO, Network OspiteAnzeige
  • kugwirizana munthawi yomweyo ndi 2, 4 GHz ndi 5 GHz ndi kuti 300 Mbit / s ndipo 867 m kwa okwana zilipo bandiwifi wa 1 Mbit / 2 GBit / s
  • Maina a 4 akunja ndi antenna amkati a 1 amapereka mawonekedwe osasuntha opanda waya ndi kutsegula bwino
  • Malonda a LAN 4 10 / 100 / 1000Mbps, ogawidwa 1 10 / 100 / 1000Mbps
  • Ikuthandizira njira yowonjezera kupeza njira yatsopano yolumikizira opanda waya
  • Katswiri wamakono opanga mafilimu amapereka chithunzi chachikulu
Palibe mavoti apabe.
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